Kimia Itu Asyik!

ATOMS AND BONDING

(11 – 36)

Vocabularies:

  • Surely              : Too, very              certainly
  • Abundant        : dibutuhkan                                           محتاج
  • Frequently      : Seringkali                                             كثيرا، تكراراً
  • Seasoning       : Untuk materi (bahan) bumbu               التابل
  • Enhances         : Meningkatkan                                      يزيد
  • Flavor              : Rasa, cita rasa, selera                          فكهة
  • Chow mien      : Sup kental dari mie
  • Collard Green  : Makanan dari tengkuk
  • Dash of            :                                                               قليل
  • Prominently    : Terkemuka, menyolok, menonjol
  • Highly valued  : bernilai tinggi
  • Paid                 : memberi hasil                                       يربح، يكسب
  • Cakes              :                                                               الخبز
  • Salary              :                                                               الحاصل
  • Derived           :                                                               نَالَ – يَنَالُ
  • The salt of Youth: Garam di masa muda                        بيضة اليوم خير من دجاجة الغد
  • Sodium Chloride: Natrium Clorid  NaCl                          الملح

1.1.  What Is Chemical Bonding? (12)

  1. A.     Vocabularies:
  • Bonding               : Ikatan                                   قيادة
  • Perhaps               : Memungkinkan                     ربما، لعلى
  • Classmate           : Teman Sekelas
  • Breath                 :                                               تنفَّسَ
  • Mentioned           :                                               يذكر
  • Property              : Kekayaan                             ملكية
  • Common              : Umum
  • Regardless          : Meskipun                              عمومي، مهما يكن
  • Size                     : Ukuran                                  مقدار، قياس
  • Shape                  : Bentuk                                  شكل
  • Phase                  : Tahapan                                                وجهٌ، دورٌ
  • Basic building block: Pilar dasar bangunan
  • Universe              : Menyeluruh                          الكون عموما
  • Imagine               : Membayangkan                    تأمل – يتأمل
  • To Prove              :                                               يبرهن
  • To list                  : Mendaftarkan                       سَجَّلَ-  يُسَجِّلُ
  • Scientist              : Ilmuwan                                                العالم
  • Element               : elemen                                  عنصر
  • Combine              : Mencampur                           خَلَّطَ -ِ
  • Compound           :                                               المركب
  • Familiar               : biasa                                     عَشِيْرٌ
  • Several                                : Beberapa                              مقصور على فرد أو جماعة
  • Vinegar                               : Cuka                                     خلٌّ
  • Lye                      :                                               محلول القلي
  • Ammonia             : Zat Amonia                           نشادر، ماء النشادر
  • Determine           : Memutuskan                         قدر- يقدر
  • Definite               :                                               محدّد، واضح
  • To investigate     :                                               يحقق في
  • Atoms are tiny particle made all matter-regardless of its shape, size, color, or phase-. And it is the basic building blocks of all the substances in the universe.
  • Elements are the simplest type of substance. It’s made of only one kind of atom.
  • Atoms and elements combine with one another to produce new and different substances called compound.
  • The rule of chemical bonding are determined by the structure of the atom.

B.     Resume

Electron and Energy Levels (12-14)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Contain                               :                                               يحتوي، يتضمن، يشتمل على
  • Charge                                : Arus listrik                            شحنة
  • Found                  : Menemukan
  • Side                     : Sisi                                        وجه، جانب
  • Subatomic           : Smaller than atom                                دوذري
  • Particle                                : Partikel                                 دقيقة، ذرة
  • Proton                 : positively charge
  • Neutron               : negatively charge
  • Electron               : no charge
  • Whole                  : Menyeluruh                          تام، كامل، جميع
  • Net                      : Jaringan                                                شبكة
  • Compared           :                                               قَرَّنَ -ِ
  • Attracted             :                                               جَذَّبَ -ِ
  • Hold                     : Memegang                                            يظبط
  • Pulled into           :
  • Remain                                :                                                               بقى-َ
  • A Region             :                                                               منطقة، إقليم
  • Electron Cold      :
  • Arranged             :                                                               رَتَّبَ -ِ
  • Innermost           : electron yang berada di energy level dalam
  • Outermost           : electron yang berada di energy level luar
  • Valence electron : Electron yang mengitari/melayang
  • Significant           :                                                               هامٌّ، ذو معنى
  • Valence electrons               : tingkatan electron yang berada di energi level luar.
  • Complete            : filled
  • Appendix             : Lampiran                                              ملحقِ
  • Important “tools” of:
  • Nucleus is a positively charge center of the atom.
  • Found inside the nucleus are two types of subatomic particles:

B. Resume

  1. Proton       : The subatomic particle has a positive charge.
  2. Neutron    : The subatomic particle has no charge.
  • Electron             : The subatomic is located outside the nucleus, its has negative charge

Protons (+)

NUCLEUS

Neutrons (  )

Electrons (-)        

           

           

B. Resume

  • Innermost Energy Levels the first atom energy level has 2 electrons.
  • Outermost Energy Levels the second atom energy level has 8 electrons.
  • Valence Electrons are electrons in the outermost energy levels of an atom.

 

Level

Per-Levels

Totals

 

Level

Per-Levels

Totals

I

2 electrons 2 electrons

IV

18 electrons 36 electrons

II

8 electrons 10 electrons

V

18 electrons 54 electrons

III

8 electrons 18 electrons

VI

32 electrons 86 electrons

            Electron and Bonding (15 – 16)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Arrangements             :                                               تركيب
  • Whether                      :
  • Generally                    :                                               عموما
  • Tend                            :                                               حضر
  • To gain                        :                                               جَذَّبَ – يُجَذِّبُ
  • Achieve                       :                                               وَصَلَ إِلَى
  • Either                          :                                               واحد منهما
  • The electrons arrangement of the outermost energy level of an atom determines whether or not the atom will form chemical bonds.
  • When the outermost energy level of an atom have complete. The atom generally does not form chemical bonds.

B. Resume

1-1. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is chemical bonding?

  • Chemical bonding is combining of atoms of elements to form new substances.

2. What is the basic structure of the atom?

  • The basic structure of the atom is:
    • Nucleus is a positively charge center of the atom.
    • Found inside the nucleus are two types of subatomic particles:

A. Proton       : The subatomic particle has a positive charge.

B. Neutron    : The subatomic particle has no charge.

  • Electron         : The subatomic is located outside the nucleus, its has negative charge

Protons (+)

NUCLEUS

Neutrons (  )

Electrons (-)        

           

           

 

3. What are valence electrons?

  • Valence Electrons are electrons in the outermost energy levels of an atom.

4. How many valence electrons can there be in first energy level?

5. How many valence electrons can there be in second energy level?

6. How many valence electrons can there be in third energy level?

  • VALENCE ELECTRONS

 

Level

Per-Levels

Totals

 

Level

Per-Levels

Totals

I

2 electrons 2 electrons

IV

18 electrons 36 electrons

II

8 electrons 10 electrons

V

18 electrons 54 electrons

III

8 electrons 18 electrons

VI

32 electrons 86 electrons

7. What determines whether or not an atom will form chemical bonds?

  • The electrons arrangement of the outermost energy level of an atom determines whether or not the atom will form chemical bonds.

1.2.  IONIC BONDS (16 – 18)

   A. Vocabularies
  • To achieve  : Mencapai
  • Both            : Keduanya
  • Involves      : Meliputi
  • Gains           : Dapat tambahan
  • Valence       : Valensi
  • Slightly        : Agak Sedikit
  • Left             : Meninggalkan/Mewariskan
  • Opposites    : Lawan
  • Attract         : Menarik
  • Each Other  : Saling
  • Hold             : Ikatan/tempelan

   B. Resume

  • An atom will bond with other another atom in order to achieve stability, which means in order for both atoms to get complete outermost energy levels.
  • Ionic Bonding is bonding that involves a transfer of electrons.
  • Ion is a charge atom
  1. The Positively charge atom is Proton.
  2. The Negatively charge atom is Electron.
  3. No charge atom is Neutron.
  • Because ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons, one atom gains electrons and the other atom loses electrons.

1. Positive Ion is when the atom loses negatively charge electron in ionic bonding.

2. Negative Ion is when the atom gains negatively charge electron in ionic bonding.

11                            17

Na1+         +             Cl1-                                                          NaCl

(Sodium)                 (Cloride)                                                  (Sodium Cloride)

           

 

 

Electron transfer

Energy For Ion Formation (18)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Removed             :                                               نُقِلَ – يُنْقَلُ
  • Overcome           : Mengendalikan, mengatasi
  • Ionization            : Proses atom menjadi bermuatan.
  • Ionization is the process of removing electrons and froming ions.
  • Ionization Energy is needed for ionization.
  • Electron Affinity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons.

B. Resume

 

Arrangement of Ions in Ionic Compunds (19 – 20)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Crystal Lattice    : Atom berpola kristal.
  • Melting Points     : Titik didih.
  • Ionization            : Proses atom menjadi bermuatan.
  • Crystal Lattice : The placement of ions in ionic compound result in a regular, repeating arrangement.
  • A crystal lattice is made of huge number of ions.  A crystal lattice gives the compound great stability.  It also accounts for certain physical properties. The

B. Resume

crystal lattice shape of ionic compound is of great importance to geologist in identifying minerals. One of the properties by which minerals are classified is crystal shape.

 

1-2. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is ionic bonding?

2. How does an atom become a negative ion?

3. How does an atom become a positive ion?

4. What is ionization?

5. What is ionization energy?

6. What is electron affinity?

7. What is a crystal lattice?

8. What is the relationship between a chemical formula for ionic compound and its crystal lattice?

 

1.3.  COVALENT BONDS (20)

A. Vocabularies
  • Affinities             : daya tarik
  • To Share              : Membagi
  • Covalent bonding is bonding in which electrons are shared rather than transferred.
  • By sharing electrons, each atom fill up its outermost energy level.  So the shared electreons are in the outermost energy level of both atoms at the same time.
B. Resume

Nature of The Covalent Bond (21 – 22)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Simultaneously   : dalam jangka waktu yang relatif bersamaan
  • Spend                                  : Mengeluarkan                      أخْرَج – يخرِج
  • Electron-dot diagram          : Diagram titik elektron
  • Surounding                          :                                               دارَ – يدُور
  • Diatomic element                               : Elemen dengan 2 atom
  • In covalent bonding, the positively charged nucleus of each atom simultaneously attracts the negatively charged electrons that are being shared.
  • Chemists represent the electron sharing that takes place in a covalent bond by an electron-dot diagram.
  • Example

B. Resume

Formation of Molecules (23 – 24)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Involved                              : meliputi
  • Bucket                                 :                                               دَلْوٌ
  • Pool                                     :                                               بركة
  • HCl                                      : Hydrogen Cloride
  • Network Solid                     : Kepadatan/kesempurnaan kerjasama
  • Graphite                              : Grapit
  • Ingredient                           : Bahan ramuan
  • Molecule is The combination of atoms formed by covalent bond. A molecule is smallest particle of covalently bonded substance that has all the properties of that substance.
  • The chemical formula for molecule shows the exact number of atoms of each element involved in the bond
  • The subscripts, or small number placed to the lower right of the symbols, show the number of atoms of each element.
  • When there is only 1 atom of en element, the subscript 1 is not written.  It is understood to be 1.
  • Network solids is The molecules are large because the atoms involved continue to bond to one another.

B. Resume

Polyatomic Ions (24 – 25)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Tend                                    :                                               أحضر – يُحضَر
  • Fertilizer                             : Pupuk/rabuk.
  • Polyatomic Ions is a group of covalently bonded atoms that acts like a single atom when combining with other atoms.

B. Resume

 

1-3. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is covalent bonding?

2. What is an electron-dot diagram?

3. How is it used to represent a covalent bond?

4. What is a molecule?

5. What does the chemical formula for a molecule tell you?

6. What is a polyatomic ion? Give two examples!

 

 

1.4.  METALIC BONDS (26 – 28)

   A. Vocabularies
  • Probably                      :                                                               يُمْكِنُ
  • Tin                               : Timah
  • Manganese                 : Mangan
  • Entirely                       :                                                               تَمَامًا؛ كُلِّيَّة
  • particular                    :                                                               الآية
  • To Accept                    :                                                               نَالَ – يَنَالُ
  • Malleable                    : Lunak & dapat ditempa
  • Hammered                  : dipalu/ditekan
  • Sheets                         : Menjadikan lapisan/pelat
  • Ductile                         : pembuluh/pipa/saluran
  • Drawn into                  : menarik/mengekang
  • Wire                            :                                                               السِلْك

 

 

   B. Resume

  • Metallic Bonds is bond formed by atoms of metals, in which the outer electrons of the atoms form a common electron cloud.
  • These electrons are often described as a sea of electron. Free-moving, or mobile, electrons that are all attracted by the nuclei at the same time surround the positive of atoms of metals.
  • Properties of metal:

1. Malleable              : they can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking.

2. Ductile                   : they can be drawn into thin wire.

3. The flexibility of metal results from the fact the metal ions can slide by one another and the electrons are free to flow.

4. The ability of the electrons to flow freely makes metals excellent conductors of both heat and electricity.

5. Metallic bonding also accounts for the high melting point of most metals. For example; the melting point of silver is 961.9oC and of gold is 1064.4oC

 

1-4. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is metallic bond?

2. What is a malleable metal?

3. What is a ductile metal?

4. How does metallic bonding account for the properties of metals?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.5.  PREDICTING TYPES OF BONDS (28 – 29)

   A. Vocabularies
  • Table periodeic           : table yang menjelaskan susunan atom berdasar urutan nomor periodic-nya.

Level

Per-atom

Total

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

0

1

H 1+

1

2

2

3

Li 1+

4

Be 2+

2

He

2

8

10

11

Na 1+

12

Mg 2+

5

B 5-

6

C 4-

7

N 3-

8

O 2-

9

F 1-

10

Ne

3

8

18

19

K 1+

20

Ca 2+

13

Al 5-

14

Si 4-

15

P 3-

16

S 2-

17

Cl 1-

11

Ar

4

18

36

37

Rb 1+

38

Sr 2+

31

Ga 5-

32

Ge 4-

33

As 3-

34

Se 2-

35

Br 1-

36

Kr

5

18

54

55

Cs 1+

56

Ba 2+

49

In 5-

50

Sn 4-

51

Sb 3-

52

Te 2-

53

I 1-

54

Xe

6

32

86

87

Fr 1+

88

Ra 2+

81

Ti 5-

82

Pb 4-

83

Bi 3-

84

Po 2-

85

At 1-

86

Rn

Combining Capacity of Atoms (29)

B. Resume

  • Oxidation number is The number of electrons an atom gains, loses, or shares when it forms chemical bonds

Using Oxidation Number (30)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Oxidation                            : Oksidasi
  • To predict                            : memprediksi                         دَلْوٌ
  • Bromide                              : Bromida
  • We can use the oxidation number of atoms to predict how atoms will combine and what the formula for the resulting compound will be.
  • Oxidation number rule: The sum of the oxidation number of the atoms in a compound must be zero.
  • Example:

B. Resume

1                       8

… H1+  +             O2 2-                                                      … H2O      (…………………)

4  H      +             O2                                            2 H2O      (Ionic Bonding)

8                           8

O2-       +             O2-                                           O            (…………………)

O2-       +             O2-                                           2O / O2  (Covalent Bond)

 

1-4. SECTION REVIEW

  1. What is an oxidation number?
  2. How can the oxidation number of an atom be determined?
  3. How is the oxidation number related to bond type?
  4. What rule of oxidation numbers must be followed in writing chemical formulas?
  5. Predict the type of bond for each combination:
  • Ca – Br
  • C – Cl
  • Ag – Ag
  • K – OH
  • SO42-

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

(37 – 62)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Fireworks        : Kembang api, mercon                          ألعابٌ النارية
  • Flast                                : light                                                      النور
  • Amidst             : di kala                                                   أثناءَ
  • The wonderful :                                                               عَجِيبٌ؛ مُدْهِشٌ
  • Celebration     :                                                               إقامة القداس؛ الاحتفال
  • Above              : di atas                                                   فَوْقَ
  • Torch               : Obor                                                      مِشْعَلٌ
  • Uprise              : Terangkat                                             رُفِعَ – يُرْفَعُ
  • Reaching         : Meraih, menjanmgkau                         مَدَّ – يَمُدُّ
  • Stood               : past of stand                                        قَامَ
  • Century           : Abad                                                     القرن؛ مائة عام
  • Passage           : Jalan pintas (pergantian masa)           انتقال من حال إلى آخر
  • Copper            : Tembaga                                               نُحَاسٌ
  • Dull                  : Change                                                 أربد {مغير}
  • Weaken           :                                                               أضعف – يضعِف
  • Damage           :                                                               يُصَاب بالأَذَى و الضَرَر
  • Glorious           :                                                               عظيم، جميل، كبير
  • Restoration     : Pemugaran                                           التجديد
  • Harbor             :                                                               مِيْنَاءٌ

 

2.1.Nature of Chemical Reactions (38)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Thought to          :                                               تَأَمَّلَ – يَتَأَمَّلُ
  • Ordinary book of matches: Sekotak korek api  علبة كبريت رقيقة عادية
  • Consider              :                                               فَكَّرَ – يُفَكِّرُ في
  • Remain                                :                                               بقى – يبقي {بَقَايًا}
  • Indefinitely         :                                               غير مَحْدُوْدٍ
  • Strikes                 :                                               يُقْدَحُ، يُشْعِلُ
  • Bursts                  : Menyala dng meledak          انْفَجَرَ – يَنْفَجِرُ
  • Brilliant flame     : Sinar yg cemerlang
  • Appearance         : Penampilan                           ظهور
  • Undergone          : Mengalami                            يحتمل، يقاسي، يخضع {لتغير إلخ}
  • Original               :                                               أصليٌّ
  • Burning               :                                               اشتعالٌ
  • Gasoline              :                                               الغازلين، البنزين
  • Rusting                                :                                               صدأ الحبوب: يجعل بلون الصدأ
  • Baking of bread  : Pengembangan roti              تحميص الخبز
  • A Chemical Reaction is a process in which the physical and chemical properties of the original substances change as new substances with different physical and chemical properties are formed.

B. Resume

Characteristics of Chemical Reactions (38 – 40)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Occur                   :                                               يظهر
  • A Flashbulb light : Lampu kamera bakar           مصباح كهربائي
  • Similar                 :                                               مشابه، مائل
  • Provide                                :                                               يشترط
  • Necessary           :                                               ضَرُوْرِيٌّ
  • Coil                      : serbuk keras                         جلبة
  • Shiny                   :                                               لموع، لميع، مضيع، لمعٌ
  • Invisible              :                                               محجوب، خفيٌّ
  • A Fine                  :                                               صَافٍ
  • Enters into          :                                               دخَلَ
  • Reactant             : Pereaksi                                                مفاعِلٌ
  • Addition              :                                               زيادة، إضافة، جمع، ملحق
  • Absorbed             : diserap, ditenggelamkan     منهك، مستغرق
  • Caramel              : Gula yg dihanguskan        سكّرٌ محروق يتخّذ للتلوين و التنكيه
  • Accompany         :               يرافق، يلازم، يصاحب، يؤدي دورا مصاحبا في الغرف
  • All chemical reactions share certain characteristics.  One of these characteristics is that a chemical reaction always results in the formation of a new substance. Example: the dark material on a burned match is a new substance. It is not the same substance that was originally on the match.
  • Reactant is a substance that enters into a chemical reaction.
  • Product is a substance that is produced by a chemical reaction.
  • In addition to changes in chemical and physical properties, chemical reactions always involve change energy.  Energy is either absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.

B. Resume

Capacity to React (40 – 41)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Capacity              :                               سعة، مواسعة، قدرة
  • React                   :                               يفعل، يجعله يتفاعل
  • Ability                 :                               قدرة، مقدرة
  • Accounts             :                               محاسبة، بسبب
  • Particles              :                               أصغر جزء، ذرة
  • Gaining                                :                               زيادة في المقدار
  • Losing                 :                               فَقَدَ، فقدان
  • Ionic                    :                               إيوني، دالفي
  • Determines         :                               فَصَّلَ – يُفَصِّلُ، قرذر- يقرّر
  • Enters into          :                               دخَلَ
  • Reactant             : Pereaksi                                مفاعِلٌ
  • Addition              :                               زيادة، إضافة، جمع، ملحق
  • Absorbed             : diserap, ditenggelamkan     منهك، مستغرق
  • Caramel              : Gula yg dihanguskan        سكّرٌ محروق يتخّذ للتلوين و التنكيه
  • Accompany         :               يرافق، يلازم، يصاحب، يؤدي دورا مصاحبا في الغرف
  • Case                    :                               حادثة، حالة
  • Rearranged         :                               رُتِّبَ-يُرَتَّبُ، نُظِّمَ-يُنَظَّمُ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى
  • Valence Electrons is Electron in the outermost energy level of an atom.
  • An atom will try to fill its outermost energy level by gaining or losing electrons, or by sharing electrons.
  • The arrangement of electrons in an atom determines the ease with which the atom will form chemical bonds.
  • During a chemical reaction, atoms can form molecule, molecule can break apart to form atoms, or molecules can react with other molecules.

B. Resume

 

2-1. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is a chemical reaction?

2. What is reactant?

3. What is product?

4. what is relationship between the arrangement of electrons in an atom and the atom’s chemical properties?

2.2.Chemical Equations (42)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Awkward             : acuh, buruk sekali
  • Complicate          : Menyulitkan
  • Consider              : Mempertimbangkan/menganggap
  • Earlier                 :                                               مباشرة، فورا
  • Shorten               : Meningkat
  • Convenient         :                                               سَهلَة
  • Sign                     :                                               آية، دلالة
  • Arrow                  : Panah
  • Yields                  :                                               حَصَّلَ على
  • Equal sign           : Tanda Sama dengan             يحتمل، يقاسي، يخضع {لتغير إلخ}
  • A Chemical Equation is an expression in which symbols and formulas are used to represent a chemical reaction.
  • Example:

B. Resume

Mg        +       O2                                     MgO                 +    Energy (Symbol)

Magnesium  +    Oxygen                        Magnesium Oxide   +    Energy (Formula)

Conservation of Mass (42 – 43)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Neither                                : Keduanya tidak                                    ليس كلاهما
  • Particular            : Fact: fakta, nyata, istimea                  الآية
  • Every atom has a particular mass; because the number of atoms of each element remains the same, mass can never change in a chemical reaction. The total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products.
  • The observation that mass remains constant in a chemical reaction is known as the law conservation of mass.

B. Resume

Balancing Chemical Equation (43 – 45)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Nor                      : Juga tidak                                             فلا
  • Appropriate         :                                                               تام، موافقة، مطابقة
  • Suppose              :                                                               ظنَّ، متى كان
  • Add                      : Menjumlahkan
  • Notice                  : Announcement                                     التنبيهات
  • A chemical equation must show that atoms are neither created nor destroyed. The number of atoms of each element must be the same on both sides of the equation.
  • Balanced chemical equation is an equation in which the number of atoms of each element in the same on both sides of the equation.
  • A subscript is a small number placed to the lower right of a symbol.
  • Chemical equations are actually easy to write and balance:

B. Resume

1. Write a word equation and then a chemical equation for the reaction. Make sure the symbols and formulas for reactants and products are correct.

2. Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the arrow.  If the numbers are the same, the equation is balanced.

3. If the number of atoms of each element is not the same on both sides of the arrow, you must balance the equation by using coefficients.  Put a coefficient

in front of a symbol or formula so that the number of atoms of that substance is the same on both sides of the arrow.  Continue this procedure until you have balanced all the atoms.

4. Check your work by continuing the atoms of each element to make sure they are the same on both sides of the equation.

 

2-2. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is a chemical equation?

2. State the law of conservation of mass!

3. Why must a chemical equation be balanced?

4. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between sodium and oxygen to form sodium oxide, Na2O!

5. Why can’t you change symbols, formulas, or subscripts in order to balance a chemical equation?

6. How are chemical equation related to equations found in mathematics?

 

2.3. Types of Chemical Reactions (46 – 50)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Complex              : Rumit
  • Corrosion            : karat
  • Bubbles               : uap gelembung udara
  • Rise                     : naik terangkat
  • Soda                    : soda
  • Uncombined        :                                               غير مكونة
  • Chemists have identified four general types of reaction: Synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement.

B. Resume

1. Synthesis Reaction is two or more simple substance combine to form a new substance.

  • A                 +             B                             AB
  • 2Na              +             Cl2                           2NaCl
  • Sodium        +             Chlorine                  Sodium Chloride

 

2. Decomposition Reaction is a complex substance break dawn into two or more simpler substance.

  • AB                                               A             +             B
  • H2CO3                                          H2O          +             CO2
  • Carbonic Acid                              Water      +             Carbon dioxide       

3. Single-Replacement Reaction is Chemical Reaction in which uncombined element replaces an element that is part of a compound.

  • A                 +             BX                           AX           +             B
  • 2Na              +             2H2O                        2NaOH     +             H2
  • Sodium        +             Water                      Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen

4. Double-Replacement Reaction is Chemical Reaction in which different atoms in two different compounds replace each other.

  • AX               +             BY                           AY           +             BX
  • MgCO3         +             2HCl                        MgCl2      +             H2CO3
  • Magnesium Carbonate + Hydrochloride Acid                 Magnesium chloride + Carbonic acid

2-3. SECTION REVIEW

1. Name the four types of reactions!

2. What is the difference between a synthesis reaction and decomposition reaction?

3. What is a single-replacement reaction?

4. What is a double-replacement reaction?

5. Critical Thinking: What Type of reaction is represented by each of the following equation?

  1. CaCO3                                                     Ca            +             CO3
  2. BaBr2       +             K2 SO4                     2KBr        +             BaSO4
  3. C              +             O2                            CO2
  4. 2Na          +             2H2O                        2NaOH     +             H2

2.4. Energy Of Chemical Reactions (50 – 52)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Based  on            :                                                مؤسس ب
  • Classified            :                                               فُصِّلَ
  • Created               :                                               مغير
  • Destroyed           :                                               هُجِم
  • Exothermic          : reaksi panas dari luar subtansi
  • Endothermic        : reaksi dalam dari luar subtansi
  • Combustion         :
  • Stored                 :                                               هُيِئ –
  • Receive               :
  • Based on type of energy change involved, chemical reactions are classified as either exothermic or endothermic reaction.
  • Exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction in which energy is released.
  • Exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed.
  • Activation Energy is the energy needed to climb to the top of the energy hill.
  • An energy diagram for an exothermic reaction indicates that heat is released during the reaction.  Heat is absorbed during an endothermic reaction, as shown by its energy diagram.  How does the heat content of products and reactants compare for each type of reaction.

B. Resume

Exothermic Reaction                               Endothermic Reaction     

Heat

absorbed

Heat

released

Reactants                       Product                    Reactants                         Product

2-3. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is exothermic reaction?

2. What is endothermic reaction?

3. On which side should the energy term be written in an equation representing an endothermic reaction?

4. On which side should the energy term be written in an equation representing an exothermic reaction?

5. Compare the energy content of reactants and product in an exothermic reaction and in an endothermic reaction?

6. Connection-You and your world: Using what you know about activation energy, explain why a match will not light if it is not struck hard enough.

2.5. Rates of Chemical Reactions (53 – 56)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Rate                    : rata-rata
  • Thick log             : balok kayu
  • Fine sawdust       : serbuk kayu yang lembut
  • Kinetics                               : kinetik
  • Depend on           : berdasarkan                                         مؤسس بِ
  • Approach             :                                                               تقرب إلى
  • To interact          : berinteraksi
  • Collision              :                                                               اتصدم
  • Precisely             :
  • Affected by         :
  • Concentration     : tingkat perbandingan antara jml subtansi dgn luas area.
  • Surface area       : luas permukaan benda
  • Temperature       : temperatur
  • Catalyst              : katalis
  • Solvent                                : yang dilarutkan
  • Solute                  : pelarut

B. Resume

  • Concentration is amount of a solute dissolved in a certain amount solvent.

–   A high concentration of reactant means there are great many particles per-unit volume.

–   Most chemical reactions proceed at a faster rate if the concentration of reactants is increase.

–   A decrease in the concentration of the reactants decreases the reaction rate.

  • Surface area refers to how much of a material. An increase surface area increases the collisions between reacting particles.
  • Temperature is measure of the energy of their motion.

–   An increase in temperature generally increases the rate of reaction.

  • Catalyst substance that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction. A decrease in the activation energy needed for the reaction allows more reactant particles to form products.

2-5. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is reaction rate?

2. How is reaction rate related to collision theory?

3. Name four factors that affect reaction rate!

4. How does collision theory explain the effect of a decrease in temperature on the reaction rate?

FAMILIES OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

(63 – 90)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Pineapple            :
  • Peach                  : buah peer
  • Cream sundae     :
  • Scoop                  :
  • Methyl butylacetate:
  • Ethyl butyrate     :
  • Acids                   : Asam
  • Bases                  : Basa
  • Surprising            :
  • Delicious             :
  • Ethyl Cinnemate sundae:
  • Isoamyl slicylate                :

2.5. Rates of Chemical Reactions

A. Vocabularies:

  • Attemp                                :
  • Various                                :
  • Acetic                  :
  • Helpful                                :
  • A few                   :
  • Solutions             : pencampuran
  • One of the most important and abundant families of chemical compounds is the family of acids, bases, and salt.

B. Resume

What is a solution? (65 – 67)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Happens              :
  • A Lump                                :
  • Dropped into       :
  • Bubbled               :
  • Mothballs            :
  • Disappear            :
  • Dissolve              :
  • Careful                                :
  • Reveal                 :
  • Naphthalene       :
  • Fizziness             :
  • Uniform               : the same
  • Identical              :
  • Meant                  :
  • Settle                  :
  • Allowed               :
  • Solute                  :
  • Solvent                                :
  • Common              :
  • Tincture               :
  • Iodine                  :
  • Antiseptic            :
  • Treat minor cuts :
  • Scratches            :
  • Liquid                  :
  • Appear                                :
  • Evaporation        :
  • Boiling                 :
  • Ability-Inability  :
  • To conduct          :
  • Electric Current   :
  • Flow of electrons                :
  • To flow                                :
  • A solution is Mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance.
  • A solution consists of two parts: ]

B. Resume

–   Solute is the substance that is dissolved.

–   Solvent is the substance that does the dissolving.

  • When alcohol is the solvent, the solution is called tincture.
  • Electrolytes are substances whose water solutions conduct an electric current.
  • Nonelectrolytes are substances whose water solutions conduct an electric current.

 

2-5. SECTION REVIEW

5. What is reaction rate?

6. How is reaction rate related to collision theory?

7. Name four factors that affect reaction rate!

8. How does collision theory explain the effect of a decrease in temperature on the reaction rate?

PETROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

(97 – 101)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Distant location  : daerah terpencil
  • Arrive                  :                                               وصل إلى
  • Destination         : penasingan/keterpencilan
  • Explosive             : tak menentu                         غير معين
  • Unfortunate        : nasib sial
  • Could                   : can
  • Result                  : effect
  • Tremendous        : dahsyat
  • Perhaps               : barangkali, boleh jadi
  • Several                                : bebrapa                                                متعددة
  • Awesomesounding: mengagumkan
  • Brave                  : Keberanian                           السجع
  • Unusal man         : manusia luar biasa                               رجل ذو مهارة و قوة خارج العادة
  • Flammable          : mudah terbakar
  • Burn                    : menyala                                                اشتَعَلَ-يَشتَعِل
  • Putting out          :                                               إخراج
  • Requires              :                                               يحتاج
  • Enormous            : hebat
  • Ingenuity            : kepintaran                            مهارة
  • Courage              : Brave
  • Nonetheless        : meski demikian, namun.

4.1. What is Petroleum? (98-99)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Gathered             :                                               اجتمع جماعة
  • Shouting              : teriakan
  • Cheering             : sorak sorai
  • A thick                 : di tengah-tengah
  • Rising up             : memancar
  • Spurting              : menyembur
  • Valuable              : berharga
  • Crude oil             : minyak mentah
  • Provide                                : Menyediakan                        هيأ-يهيئ
  • Bathing suit        : Baju renang
  • Wear                   :                                               التبس-يلتَبِس
  • Buried                 : terpendam/terkubur
  • Beneath              : Under
  • Mud                     : Lumpur
  • Silt                       : Endapan lumpur
  • Clay                     : tanah liat/lempung
  • Nonrenewable resource: sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbaharui.
  • Despite                                : Meskipun
  • Huge                    : very much
  • Obtained             : produced
  • Ooze slowly        : memancar secara perlahan
  • Thick tar              : Aspal yang mengental
  • Petroleum is substance believed to have been formed hundred of millions of years ago when layers of dead plants and animals were buried beneath sediments such as mud, sand, silt, or clay at the bottom of the oceans.

B. Resume

Separating Petroleum Into Parts (99 – 100)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Separating          : Pemisahan
  • Fractions             : Pemecahan/pemisahan menjadui bagian yang lebih spesifik
  • Distillation          : Penyulingan
  • Vaporize              : Penguapan
  • Condenses          : Menyublim (dari uap/gas menjadi cair)
  • Refining              : Pengilangan
  • Base                    : Dasar
  • Rise up                                : Membumbung
  • Drawn off into     : Diendapkan
  • Fractional distillation is the process in which petroleum is separated in its useful parts.
  • Refining is the process of separating petroleum into its fractions.

B. Resume

Separating Petroleum Into Parts (99 – 100)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Wax                     : dempul/lilin
  • Raw materials     : bahan baku
  • Reduce                                : mereduksi/menurunkan/mengendapkan
  • Lubricants           : minyak pelumas
  • Equipment           : kelengkapan
  • Delicate               : lembut
  • Primarily             : terutama
  • Source of nearly : sumber daya alam yang cepat dapat diaplikasikan untuk
  • The examples of petroleum products are wax, lubricants and fuels.
  • Lubricants are substance that reduces friction between moving parts of equipment.
  • Fuels made from petroleum burn easily and release a tremendous amount of energy.
  • Fractionating Tower Products

B. Resume

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4-1. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is petroleum and why is it important?

2. Describe the process of fractional distillation!

3. Describe the products produced from petroleum!

4. How would you separate three substances –A, B and C- whose boiling points are 50oC, 100oC, and 150oC, respectively?

4.2. Petrochemical Products (101 – 102)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Pour                     : menuang
  • A Pair of sneakers: sepasang sepatu boot (karet)
Polymer Chemistry (101-102)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Refers to             :                                               راجع إلى
  • Chains                : rangkaian
  • Link                     : hubungan/mata rantai
  • Prefix                   : awalan
  • Entire                  :                                               كافة
  • Length                 :                                               طول
  • Shape                  :                                               شكل
  • Determine           :                                               قرَّرَ – يُقَرِّرُ ،  قدَّر – يقدِّر
  • Term                    :                                               رمز، طريقة، كيفية، منهج
  • Monomer is each link in the chain is small molecular unit.
  • Polymer is The entire molecule chain.

B. Resume

Natural Polymers (102)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Polymer               : kumpulan dari monomer (natural or artificial compound composed of large molecules with are them selves made from combination of small  simples molecules).
  • Rubber                                :                                               مطاط
  • Cellulose             : selulosa (zat serat dalam kayu)
  • Lignin                  : lignin
  • Amino acids        : asam amino
  • Muscle                 : urat, otot, syaraf.
  • Natural polymer is natural compound composed of large molecules with are them selves made from combination of small simples molecules.
  • Example: Cotton, silk, wool, natural rubber, cellulose, lignin, and amino acids.

B. Resume

Synthetic Polymers (102 – 104)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Polymerization    : polimerisasi/proses produksi polimer
  • Intertwining        : rangkaian dalam kembar
  • Loops                  : putaran
  • Lightweight         : berbobot ringan
  • Instead                                : malahan/dari pada
  • Heat resistant     : tahan panas
  • Flexible                               : dapat diaplikasikan untuk berbagai kepentingan
  • Durable               : tahan lama/awet
  • Although             : meskipun
  • Plastic wrap        : bungkus/sampul dr plastik
  • Fabric                  : kain/bahan tenunan
  • Utensils               : perabot
  • Human tissues    : jaringan/otot/urat manusia.
  • Bones                  : Tulang
  • Arteries               : pembuluh darah arteri
  • Tear                     : cabikan
  • Adhesives           : perekat
  • Replacing            : penempatan/menempatkan, membentuk
  • Insulating            : isolasi
  • Rugs                    : permadani
  • Furniture             : perabot rumah tangga
  • Wall covering      : penutup lantai
  • Curtain                                : korden
  • Spot                     : menempatkan
  • Polymerization is the process of chemically bonding monomers to form polymers.
  • Relationship between a monomer and a polymer is the type of monomers and the length and shape of polymer chain determine the physical properties of polymer.
  • Many ways in which these monomers can be linked may be very complex.  They include single chains, spirals, loops, and loops of chains.
  • Synthetic polymers is polymers produced from petrochemicals.
  • Some characteristics of synthetic polymers are: strong, lightweight, heat resistant, flexible, and durable (long lasting).

B. Resume

 

4-2. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is petrochemical product? Give several example!

2. What is relationship between a monomer and a polymer?

3. List three examples of natural polymers! Of synthetic polymers!

4. What is polymerization?

5. What are some characteristics of synthetic polymers?

RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

(111 – 160)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Element               :                                               أُنْصُرٌ
  • Prairie land         : padang rumput yang sangat luas
  • Waxahachie        : Waxahachie (salah satu nama daerah di Texas)
  • Site                      :                                               محال، موقع
  • Ever Undertaken : tak terjamah
  • Beneath              : under
  • Accelerator         : pemercepat
  • Tunnel                 : trowongan
  • Track                   : rel, jejak, jalan
  • Diverted              : diselami
  • Occur                   : terjadi
  • Collision              : tumburan                              التصادم
  • Smashing            : Collision
  • Worth                  : bernilai
  • Enormous            : very big

5.1. Radioactivity (112)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Stumble               :                                               زَلَّ –ِ، غَلَطَ -ِ
  • Purely                  : semata-mata                        على نحو صرف
  • Compound           : senyawa, campuran bahan  مُرَكَّبٌ
  • Indeed                 : sungguh                                                صَحِيْحٌ، غَرِيْبٌ، عَجَبًا
  • Evidence             : Facts     وقائع، علامة، أمارة، بينة، دليل، شاهد، يبرهن، يظهر، جليّ
  • Else                     :                                               بطريق آخر
  • 1896 Henry Becquerel was experimenting with Uranium compound to determine whether it gave off X-rays (invisible light). His experiments did indeed provide evidence of X-rays, but they also showed something else (something rather exciting). Quite by accident, Bequerel discovered that the uranium gave off other types of rays that never before been detected.
  • Henry Becquerel was experimenting with Uranium compound

B. Resume

                                                                Sun’s light

 

 

                                                                Uranium compound

 

                                                                X-rays

 

                                                                Lightproof paper

 

                                                                The X-rays pass trough lightproof paper

 

                                                                Film

FILM BEFORE X –RAYS PASSING
FILM AFTER X –RAYS PASSING

                          No image                                  image
An Illuminating Discovery (112 – 113)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Illuminating        :                                               إضاءة، تنوير
  • Glowed                                :                                               تَنَوَّرَ -َ
  • Warped               :                                               غَلَّفَ غِلاَفًا
  • Lightproof paper : kertas kedap cahaya
  • Allow                   :                                               يُفْرِدُ، يُنْقِصُ، يُخَصِّصُ
  • A piece                                :                                               قطعة، جزء، نموذج عينة
  • Fluorescent         :                                               مستشعع، لاضف، فلوريّ
  • Reasoned            :                                               سببٌ، مبرّرٌ
  • Prevent                               :                                               يَمْنَعُ، يحول دُونَ، يعوق
  • Reaching             :                                               يبسُطُ، يُمُّد، يَتَنَاوَلُ
  • To confirm           :                                               يقوي، يعزِّز، يصدق على
  • Impatient            :                                               برم، نفذ الصبر
  • Decide                 :                                               فَصَّلَ -ِ
  • Invisible              :                                               محجوب
  • Concluded           :                                               اسْتَنْتَجَ –ِ
  • Source                 :                                               مَصدَرٌ، أصْلٌ
  • Pitchblende         :                                               مَعْدِنٌ أَسْوَدٌ
  • 1898 Marie Currie (polish scientist working in France and a former student of Bequerel’s) became interested in Bequerel’s pioneering work. She and her husband Pierre Currie discovered a new radioactive element in a uranium ore known as pitchblende.  They named this element polonium in honor of Marie curie’s native Poland.

B. Resume

The Nature of Nuclear Radiation (114 – 115)

B. Resume

  • The properties of Radioactive Elements

1. Radioactive elements alter photographic film.

2. They produce fluorescence in certain compound.

3. That electric charge can be detected in the air surrounding radioactive elements.

4. Radioactive elements damages cells in most organism.

  • Radioactivity is the release of nuclear radiation in the form of particles and rays from a radioactive element.
  • Three different particles or rays were given off by the radiation are: alpha particles (α), beta particles (β), and gamma particles (γ).
  • The three types of radiation can be separated according to change and penetrating power. When passed through a magnetic field, alpha particles are deflected toward the negative pole, beta particles are deflected toward the positive pole, and gamma rays are not deflected.  Which type of radiation is the most penetrating?

Paper       Aluminum                                Concrete

Lead container

+   α  Particles

_                                                                  γ Particles

β Particles

Radioactive sample

TYPES OF NUCLEAR RADIATION
Type Atomic Mass Atomic Number

Alpha particles (α).

4

+ 2

Beta particles (β)

0

– 1

Gamma particles (γ)

0

none

  • Types of Nuclear Radiation

1. Alpha Particle is actually the nucleus of a Helium atom –2 protons and 2 neutrons.

–   An Alpha particle has a positive charge because it contains 2 positive protons and no other charges.

–   Alpha particles are the weakest type of nuclear radiation.

–   They can burn flesh.

–   They can be stopped by sheet of paper.

2. Beta particle is an electron.

–   That is formed inside the nucleus when a neutron breaks apart.

–   They have a penetrating ability 100 times greater than alpha particles.

–   They can pass trough as much as 3 mm of aluminum.

3. Gamma Ray is an electromagnetic wave of extremely high frequency and short wavelength.

–   Gamma rays are the same kind of wave as the visible light that enables you to see.  That is, both are forms of electromagnetic wave.

–   They carry a lot more energy.

–   They are the most penetrating radiation given off by radioactive elements.

–   They can pass trough several centimeters of lead.

5-1. SECTION REVIEW

1. Describe radioactivity!

2. How did Henry Becquerel discover radioactivity?

3. How did the Curies (-Marie & Pierre- Currie) use Becquerel’s discovery?

4. What is radioactive element?

5. Describe an alpha particle, beta particle, and Gamma ray! How are they alike? How are they different?

 

5.2. Nuclear Reaction (116)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Understandable  :                                               مفهوم
  • Emitting              : memancarkan
Nuclear Reaction (116 – 117)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Puzzling               : membuat teka-teki                              جعله سؤالا
  • Repel                   : menolak                                                رَدَّ -ُ
  • Repulsion            : repel                                     رَدٌّ
  • Associate            :                                               اتصالٌ
  • Binding energy   :                                               القوة الجاذبيةُ
  • To hold                                :                                               ربط -ُ
  • Permanently       :                                               بقاءٌ
  • A Particular         :                                               خصوصي
  • Vary                    : menyela , menyelang-nyelingi
  • Affect                  : Mempengaruhi                     يؤثر في
  • Identity               :                                               ذاتية، هوية
  • Common              :                                               عمومي، عادي، مشترك
  • Coal                     : batu-bara
  • Graphite              : grapit
  • Dating                 :                                               إثبات التاريخ لِ
  • Fossil                   : الأفور أحافير، المستحاث ج: مستحثات، بقايا حيوان و نبات من عصر جيولوجي سالف مستحجرة في أديم الأرض
  • The nucleus hold together by a force, a force known as the nuclear strong force overcomes the force repulsion between protons and holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.
  • Binding energy the energy associated with the strong force.
  •  Isotope is atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as another atom but a different number of neutrons.
  • The number of protons in the atoms of a particular element cannot vary.  The number of protons it contains identifies an atom. (The number of protons is called the atomic number)

B. Resume

NONRADIOACTIVE & RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES OF SOME COMMON ELEMENTS
ELEMENT

NONRADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE

RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE

Hydrogen 1 Proton

0 Neutron

1 Proton

2 Neutron

Helium 2 Proton

2 Neutron

2 Proton

4 Neutron

Lithium 3 Proton

4 Neutron

3 Proton

5 Neutron

Carbon 6 Proton

6 Neutron

6 Proton

8 Neutron

Nitrogen 7 Proton

7 Neutron

7 Proton

9 Neutron

Oxygen 8 Proton

8 Neutron

8 Proton

6 Neutron

Potassium 19 Proton

20 Neutron

19 Proton

21 Neutron

Becoming Stable (118 – 119)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Stable                  :                                               مسقرٌّ، ثابت
  • Hanging over      :                                               معلقٌ بُ
  • Edge                    : tepi,jurang                            شاطِئٌ
  • Cliff                     : jurang                                   هُوَةٌ
  • Precarious           : rumit, sulit
  • Remain                                :                                               باقي
  • Fallen                  : fall                                        سقط
  • Certainly             :                                               أيقَنَ -ِ
  • Emit                     : memancarkan
  • Radioactive Decay: Peluruhan radioaktif
  • Breakdown          : luruh.
  • Sum                     : jumlah                                   عدد
  • Decreases           :                                               نقص
  • Subtracting         : decrease
  • Additional           :                                               إضافيً
  • Either                  :                                               أحد الأمرين
  • Transmutation    :                                               محول، محاولة
  • Accompanied      :                                               اشترك –ِ، اشتراك
  • Extremely            : enormous
  • Wave                   :                                               مَوْجٌ
  • Transition            :                                               انْتِقَالٌ، تَحَوُّل
  • State                   :                                               طبقة

B. Resume:

  • Nucleus that is unstable can became stable by undergoing a nuclear reaction, or change.
  • Radioactive decay is the process in which atomic nuclei emit particles or rays to became lighter and more stable.
  • Transmutation is the process in which one element is changed into another as a result of change in the nucleus.
Radioactive Half-Life (120 – 121)

A. Vocabularies:

  • A Vast                 : very much, sangat banya, luas
  • Fixed rate            : masa luruh rata-rata.
  • Suppose              : andai kata
  • Greatly                                : radical

 

B. Resume:

  • Half-life is the fixed rate of decay of radioactive element.
  • Half-life of a radioactive element is the amount of time it takes for half the atoms in a given sample of the element to decay.

 

  • After the first half-life, half the atoms in the sample are the radioactive element. The other half are the decay element, or the element into which the radioactive element changes.

 

                        I half-life       ½ element           II half-life             ¾ element

Radioactive element           ½ radioactive element                      ¼ radioactive element

HALF-LIFE OF SOME RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

ELEMENT

HALF-LIFE

 

ELEMENT

HALF-LIFE

Bismuth-212

60.05 minutes

Polonium-215

0.0018 second

Carbon-14

5730 years

Polonium-216

0.16 second

Chlorine-36

400,000 years

Radium-226

1600 years

Cobalt-60

5.26 years

Sodium-24

15 hours

Iodine-121

8,07 days

Uranium-235

710 million years

Phosphorus-32

14.3 days

Uranium-238

4.5 billion years

Decay Series (121 -122)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Decay                  : very much, sangat banya, luas
  • Turn                     : putaran, giliran.

B. Resume:

·    Decay series is the series of steps by which a radioactive nucleus decays into.
·    When the elements of radioactive in turn decay, forming still other elements.  The spontaneous breakdown continues until a stable, nonradioactive nucleus is formed.
Artificial Transmutation (122 – 124)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Artificial              :                                                               الصناعي
  • Transmutation    :                                                               التغيير
  • Bombard             : memborbardir/menembaki secara radikal dan kontinyu
  • To hit                   : mengenai/membidik
  • To alter               :                                                               غَيَّرَ -ِ
  • Accelerating        : akselerasi (pemercepatan bertingkat)
  • Repulsion            : repel                                                     رَدَّ -ُ
  • Penetrate            : menembus

 

B. Resume:

  • Before the neutron discovery in 1932, mainly alpha particles and protons were used as the bullets to bombard nuclei. Both are repelled by positive charge of the target nucleus.
  • Transmutation is process in which one element is changed into another as a result of changes in the nucleus.
  • Artificial Transmutation is Changing of one element into another element by unnatural means; involves bombarding a nucleus with high-energy particles to cause change.
  • Transmutation elements (also known as synthetic elements) are those with more than 92 protons in their nuclei.  They have atomic number grater than 92.
  • Erinco Fermi (an Italian scientist) and his co-workers realized that because neutrons are neutral, they are not repelled by the nucleus.
  • Using a similar technique can make radioactive isotopes of natural elements.  Irene (Marie Curie’s daughter) and Frederic Joliot (her husband) discovered that stable atoms could be made radioactive when they are bombarded with neutrons.
  • Nuclear reaction can be described by equation.  Symbols are used to represent atoms as well as particles.  And the total mass numbers on both sides of the equation are equal.

238                                            234                                           4

92U                    90Th      +          2He       +          Gamma

5-2. SECTION REVIEW

1. How is the binding energy related to the stability of nucleus?

2. How can an unstable nucleus become stable?

3. What happens during radioactive decay?

4. What are three types of radioactive decay?

5. What is the half-life?

6. What is a decay series?

7. What is transmutation?

8. What is artificial transmutation?

9. Critical thinking: The half-life of radium 222 is 38 second. How many grams of radium 222 remain in 12 grams sample after 76 seconds, 114 seconds, and how many half-life have occurred when 0.75 gram remain?

5.3. Harnessing The Nucleus (126 – 127)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Harnessing          :
  • Tremendous        : very big
  • To bind                                :                                               جَذَّبَ – ِ
  • Struck by             : srempet, gesek
  • Roughly               : hasil kasar
  • Provided              :                                               هيأ -ِ
  • Startling              : mengejutkan
  • Knocking out       : pukulan telak
  • Fragment            : Pesahan                                                الفرع؛ الفرقة
  • Splitting              : pembelahan
  • Approximately    : kira-kira
  • Capable               :                                               قادر على   قدر على
  • Chain                   :                                               قيد تحويل، غلطة، سلطة
  • Conversion          : perubahan dengan penukaran
  • Amount               : Quantity
  • Slightly                                : ramping, agak ringan
  • Currently             :
  • Primarily             : mencapai puncaknya           وصل إلى الغاية

B. Resume:

  • 1930s : several other scientists built upon the discovery of Fermi and his co-workers.
  • 1938   : Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman (German scientists) discover that when the nucleus of an atom of uranium-235 is struck by neutron, two smaller nuclei of roughly equal mass were produced. Lise Minner and Otto Frish, provide an explanation for this event: The uranium nucleus had actually split into two
  • Nuclear Fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller nuclei af approximately equal mass.
  • A Nuclear chain reaction the continuous series of fission reaction.
  • An uncontrolled chain reaction produces a nuclear explosion. Example: The atomic bomb.
  • All currently operating nuclear power plants use controlled fission reactions to produce energy.  The energy is primarily in the form of heat.  The heat is carried away and used to produce electricity.
Nuclear Fusion (128 – 130)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Fusion                 : penggabungan
  • Fission                 : pemecahan
  • Reached              : dijangkau
  • Advantage          : aneh
  • Unfortunately     : nasib sial, jika sedang sial
  • Waste                  : pembuangan
  • Considerable       : pertimbangan
  • Beams                 : sorotan
  • Be Conducted     : di hasilkan; disalurkan.

B. Resume:

  • Nuclear Fusion is the joining of two atomic nuclei of smaller masses to form a nucleus of larger mass.
  • The temperatures must well over a million degrees Celsius be reached to take place nuclear reaction.
  • The temperature conditions required for nuclear fusion exits on the sun and on other stars.  In fact, it is nuclear fusion that produces the sun’s energy.
  • Nuclear fusion produces a tremendous amount of energy. The energy comes from matter that is converted into energy during the reaction. The products formed by fusion have mass that is about 1% less than the mass of the reactants; its conversion produces an enormous quantity of energy.
  • The energy released in fusion reactions is greater for a given mass than that in fission reactions. Fusion reactions also produce less radioactive waste.
  • Fusion reactions are more difficult to begin, to control and to maintain than nuclear fission reaction are.

 

                                                                          Krypton-92 nucleus

 

Neutron                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                2 or 3 Neutrons                         

 

 

 

                                                                            Barium-141 nucleus                                                         

                                                Energy

 

(Nuclear fission) A Uranium-235 nucleus is bombarded with a neutron. The nucleus breaks up, producing a nucleus of Krypton-92 and nucleus of Barium-141. Large amounts of energy as well as two additional neutrons are released.  Each neutron is capable of splitting another uranium-235 nucleus.

Different elements will give off energy and became more stable by undergoing either fusion or fission. For most elements lighter than iron-56, nuclear fusion will give off energy.  For most elements heavier than iron-56, nuclear fission will give of energy.  Elements gain stability by moving closer on the graph to iron-56.

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                         Fission                             

         

                                                Iron-56                                                     

 

       

Neutron                                Fusion

number

 

               

                Protons number

 

 

5-3. SECTION REVIEW

1. What is nuclear fission?

2. What is nuclear fusion?

3. How is the sun’s energy produced?

4. Where does the energy produced in both fission and fusion reaction come form?

5. Compare the energy produced by fission and fusion reactions with the energy produced by radioactive decay!

6. Why is the production of less radioactive waste considered an advantage of nuclear fusion?

5.4. Detecting and Using Radioactivity (131)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Felt                      :
  • Marks                  : tanda, tanda sasaran
  • Purpose               :                                               غايةٌ
  • Cloud Chamber  : ruangan dengan awan
  • Bubble chamber  : ruang dengan gelembung

B. Resume:

  • The instruments scientists use to detected and measure radioactivity include the electroscope, the Geiger counter, the cloud chamber, and the bubble chamber.
Instruments For Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity (131 – 132)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Tube                    :                                               خرطومٌ
  • Reduce pressure : pengurangan tekanan
  • Clicks                  : klik
  • Condensation point: (point at which it becomes a liquid) titik pengembunan
  • To boil                 : mendidih
  • Liquid phase       : tinkatan cair

 

 

 

B. Resume:

  • The instruments for detecting and measuring radioactivity are Electroscope, Geiger Counter, Cloud Chamber, and Bubble Chamber.
  • Electroscope is device consisting of a metal rod with two thin metal leaves at one end that can be used to detect radioactivity.
  • Bubble Chamber is device that uses a superheated liquid to create bubbles when radioactive particles pass through it.
  • Cloud Chamber is device to study radioactivity, which uses a cooled gas that will condense around radioactive particles.
  • Geiger Counter is device that can be used to detect radioactivity because its produces an electric current in the presence of a radioactive substance.
Putting Radioactivity to Work (133 -134)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Dating                 : menentukan tanggal
  • To find Leaks of weak spot: mendeteksi kebocoran pipipa dapa titik terlemah
  • Rate of wear       : rata-rata pemakaian
  • Tracer                  : jejak, bekas
  • Path                     : jalur
  • Branch                 : cabang, filial
  • Diagnosing diseases: mendiaknosa penyakit
  • Research tool      : alat pendiaknosa
  • Invaluable           : nilai tak terhingga
  • Division               : pembagian, pembelahan
  • Attempt               : upaya, usaha
  • Treat                   : perawatan
  • To spoil               : menghancurkan
  • Preserve              : mengawetkan
  • While                   : di saat

B. Resume:

  • Radioisotope is artificially produced radioactive isotope; often use in medicine or industry.
  • Tracer is radioactive element whose pathway can be followed trough the steps of chemical reaction or industrial process.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imagine) involves recording changes in the energy of atomic nuclei in response to external energy change, without altering the cells of the body in any way.
  • As early as 1904, physicians attempted to treat masses of unhealthy cells, known as tumors, with high-energy radiation.  This treatment is called Radiation therapy.
Dangers of Radiation (134 – 135)

A. Vocabularies:

  • Great Care                          : perawatan yang luar biasa
  • Ionize                                  : mengurai, menjadi ion (muatan atom +/-)
  • Oddly enough                     : cukup aneh
  • Considerable demage         : kerusakan parah
  • Otherwise                           :                                               عَكْسٌ
  • Interfere                             :                                               خلَّط -ِ
  • Reddening                           : memerah                              أَحْمَرَ -َ
  • Unpleasant                          : not good feeling
  • Symptoms                           : gejala, memperlihatkan tanda-tanda
  • Nausea                                                : mual
  • Fatigue                                                : penat, letih
  • Hair loss                              : rambut rontok
  • Exposure                             : mpencahayaan
  • Precautions                         : preventive
  • Badges                                                : tanda tingkatan
  • Serve                                   : menyediakan, giliran.
  • Worn                                   : wear; use
  • Benefits                              : keuntungan

5-4. SECTION REVIEW

1. Name four instruments used to detect and measure radioactivity!

2. Compare a bubble chamber and a cloud chamber!

3. What is radioisotope?

4. What are its uses?

5. What is tracer? Describe several uses of tracers!

6. Connection-life science: A mutation is change that occurs in the genetic material of a cell (the code that determines what traits will be carried on from generation to generation).  Why does nuclear radiation cause mutations?

About CakTip

Pelayan santri-santriwati Pondok Modern Arrisalah Program Internasional di Kota-Santri Slahung Ponorogo Jawa-Timur Indonesia K. Post 63463. Lahir di Segodorejo Sumobito Jombang JATIM di penghujung Ramadhan 1395 H. Pernah bantu-bantu di IPNU Sumobito Jombang, IPM SMA Muh 1 Jombang, beberapa LSM, karya ilmiah, teater, dll. Lagi demen-demenya sama design grafis (corel). Sekarang lagi ngarit rumput hidayah di lapangan perjuangan PM Arrisalah. Sekali waktu chekout ke beberapa tempat yang bikin penasaran untuk nambah ilmu. Duh Gusti! Nyuwun Husnu-l-Khatimah!

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